How will Rice Planting Develop?
release time 2020-05-08 14:47:14
Since 2000, the new generation of high performance rice seedling transplanting technology has been developed rapidly, and the proportion of rice mechanization has been increasing year by year. As technology promotion, some problems are also emerging.
I judge that high speed transplanter and other planting machinery with higher efficiency are the mainstream in the future. From the technical trend, high efficiency, precision, environmental protection and energy saving are the next development trend of rice planting technology. Of comprehensive experience at home and abroad, there are six major technologies worthy of attention.
The technology of side deep fertilization is to apply controlled-release fertilizer and slow-release fertilizer at the root side of 4-5 cm and depth of 4-5cm at the same time of transplanting rice seedlings. It has been proved by practice that the technology of side deep fertilization can accomplish the work of transplanting and fertilizing at one time, implements the slow release of fertilizer covering soil, and effectively improves the fertilizer utilization ratio. Compared with the normal operation, it can increase the yield by 10%, save fertilizer by 20%, increase the root within 30 days by 30%.
It is complained that the mechanized seedling transplanting uses more workers during the seedling raising step. Rice direct seeding has obvious advantage in input-output ratio. With the efforts of academician Luo Xiwen and other scientists, a complete technical system has been formed. It is different from artificial disorderly sowing, but integrates modern planting technology such as row spacing adjustable, orderly seeding, ventilation and light transmission, strong lodging resistance. If combined with seed coating, laser ground preparation, the yield can be even higher.
The "bowl blanket technique", which combines the advantages of bowl seedling technology, was put forward by Professor Zhu Defeng. It has been widely used in farms of Heilongjiang province, and it has been proved in practice that there is almost no increase in farmers' cost. The yield can be increased at least 3-5% by adjusting the structure of seedling tray and transplanter.
Recent equipments with higher precision usually use GPS and Beidou navigation system, but they are expensive and difficult to popularize. However, based on the standard of "Row transplanting on image recognition", the auxiliary alignment technology is adopted to solve the problem of consistency of row spacing of transplanter at low cost.
Rice wide and narrow row planting technology was first put forward by agricultural technicians in China in the 1990s. It adjusts the row spacing of transplanting seedlings, using a wide and narrow row planting method, to achieve high and stable yield of rice. In 2010, Professor Zhao Yun cooperated with Fulaiwei Company to study high-speed wide and narrow row rice transplanter and did mechanical test in Guangdong and Northeast China. The main technical features of this transplanter are as follows: 40cm in width and 20cm in narrow, the planting density is almost the same as 30cm’s but can obviously increase rice yield.
In recent years, a large number of full-feed harvesters were used, stubble was left higher and higher. With the ban on straw burning, it requires stubble full return to the field and brings new problems for mechanized seedling transplanting. A kind of two-axis straw return machinery developed by Fulaiwei Company and Yangzhou University can solve this problem. By means of two-axis stratified cutting, the aim of ultra-deep rotary tillage was achieved, and the depth of rotary tillage was more than 22cm. By using this kind of machinery, one could finish tillage, pulping and smoothing operation together, and the cost is only 1/3 of the traditional method.